Class 12 Biology Syllabus
|Unit - I||Sexual Reproduction||12 Marks|
|Unit - II||Genetics and Evolution||20 Marks|
|Unit - III||Biology and Human Welfare||12 Marks|
|Unit -IV||Biotechnology and Its Applications||12 Marks|
|Unit - V||Ecology and Environment||14 Marks|
Unit I : Sexual Reproduction
Pollination and fertilization in flowering plants.
Development of seeds and fruits.
Human reproduction : reproductive system in male and female, menstrual cycle, production of gametes, fertilization,implantation, embryo development, pregnancy and parturition.
Reproductive health:birth control, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases.
Unit II : Genetics and Evolution
Chromosome theory of inheritance, deviations from Mendelian ratio (gene interactionincomplete dominance, co-dominance, complementary genes, multiple alleles).
Sex determination in human beings : XX, XY.
Linkage and crossing over.
Inheritance pattern of haemophilia and blood groups in human beings.
DNA: replication, transcription, translation.
Gene expression and regulation.
Genome and Human Genome Project.
Evolution : Theories and evidences.
Unit III Biology and Human Welfare
Basic concepts of immunology, vaccines.
Pathogens and parasites.
Plant breeding, tissue culture, food production.
Microbes in houshold food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment and energy generation.
Cancer and AIDS.
Adolescence, drugs and alcohol abuse.
Unit IV Biotechnology and Its Applications
Recombinant DNA technology.
Applications in Health, Agriculture and Industry.
Genetically modified (GM) organizms; biosafety issues.
Insulin and Bt cotton.
Unit V Ecology and Environment
Ecosystems components, types and energy flow.
Species, population and community.
Centers of diversity and conservation of biodiversity, National Parks and Wild Life Sanctuaries.
|One Practical Paper||Time : 3||Max. Marks 30|
STRUCTURE OF QUESTION PAPER
Distribution of marks.
|1.||Two experiments four marks each 4 + 4 Marks||8 Marks|
|2.||Two slide indentification with reasons 2 + 2 Marks||4 Marks|
|3.||Spotting of two animals and two plants. Comment upon their adaptations||8 Marks|
|4.||Investigatory project and Viva based on the project||5 Marks|
|5.||Record and Viva based on the experiments||5 Marks|
- The maximum number of students to be examined by the practical examiner should not be more than 20 students per group.
- The project report duly signed by the teacher should be kept in record and sent to the board on demand.
List of Experiments :
- Study of pollen grain on a slide.
- Collect and study soil from different sites and study them for texture and moisture content.
- Study the pH and Water holding capacity of soil. Correlate with the kinds of plants found in them.
- Collect water from different water bodies around you and study them for pH clarity and presence of any living organisms.
- Study the presence of suspended particulate matter in air at the two widely different sites.
- Study of plant population frequency by quadrat method.
- Study of flowers adapted to pollination by different agencies (wind, insect).
- Study of pollen germination on a slide.
- Study and identify stages of gamete development i.e. T.S. of testis and T.S. of ovary through permanent slide.
- Study meiosis in onion bud cell or grasshopper testis through permanent slide.
- Study of T.S. of blastula through permanent slide.
- Study mendelian inheritance using seeds of different colour/size of any plant.
- Study prepared pedigree charts of genetic traits such as rolling of tongue,blood groups, widow's peak, colour blindness.
- Exercise on controlled pollination-Emasculation, tagging and bagging.
- To identify common diseases causing organisms like Ascaris, Entamoeba, Plasmodium, ringworm. Comment on symptoms of diseases that they cause through permanent slides or specimens.
- Study plants and animals found in xerophyte conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.
- Study plants and animals found in aquatic conditions. Comment upon their adaptation ecosystem.
- Study analogous and homologous organs in various plants and animals.